Friday, 30 June 2017

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Wolfowitz Doctrine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paul Wolfowitz, co-author of the doctrine.
Wolfowitz Doctrine is an unofficial name given to the initial version of the Defense Planning Guidance for the 1994–99 fiscal years (dated February 18, 1992) authored by Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz and his deputy Scooter Libby. Not intended for public release, it was leaked to the New York Times on March 7, 1992,[1] and sparked a public controversy about U.S. foreign and defense policy. The document was widely criticized as imperialist as the document outlined a policy of unilateralism and pre-emptive military action to suppress potential threats from other nations and prevent any other nation from rising to superpower status.
Such was the outcry that the document was hastily re-written under the close supervision of U.S. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell before being officially released on April 16, 1992. Many of its tenets re-emerged in the Bush Doctrine,[2] which was described by Senator Edward M. Kennedy as "a call for 21st century American imperialism that no other nation can or should accept."[3]
Although Wolfowitz was ultimately responsible for the Defense Planning Guidance, as it was released through his office and was reflective of his overall outlook, he did not participate in its drafting, nor saw it before it was publicly released.[4] The task of preparing the document fell to Libby, who delegated the process of writing the new strategy to Zalmay Khalizad, a member of Libby's staff and longtime aide to Wolfowitz. In the initial phase of drafting the document, Khalizad solicited the opinions of a wide cross-section of Pentagon insiders and outsiders, including Andrew Marshall, Richard Perle, and Wolfowitz's University of Chicago mentor, the nuclear strategist Albert Wohlstetter.[5] Completing the draft in March 1992, Khalizad requested permission from Libby to circulate it to other officials within the Pentagon. Libby assented and within three days Khalizad's draft was released to the New York Times by "an official who believ[ed] this post-cold war strategy debate should be carried out in the public domain." [6]


Doctrine articles

Superpower status

The doctrine announces the U.S’s status as the world’s only remaining superpower following the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War and proclaims its main objective to be retaining that status.
Our first objective is to prevent the re-emergence of a new rival, either on the territory of the former Soviet Union or elsewhere, that poses a threat on the order of that posed formerly by the Soviet Union. This is a dominant consideration underlying the new regional defense strategy and requires that we endeavor to prevent any hostile power from dominating a region whose resources would, under consolidated control, be sufficient to generate global power.
This was substantially re-written in the April 16 release.
Our most fundamental goal is to deter or defeat attack from whatever source... The second goal is to strengthen and extend the system of defense arrangements that binds democratic and like-minded nations together in common defense against aggression, build habits of cooperation, avoid the renationalization of security policies, and provide security at lower costs and with lower risks for all. Our preference for a collective response to preclude threats or, if necessary, to deal with them is a key feature of our regional defense strategy. The third goal is to preclude any hostile power from dominating a region critical to our interests, and also thereby to strengthen the barriers against the re-emergence of a global threat to the interests of the U.S. and our allies.

U.S. primacy

The doctrine establishes the U.S.'s leadership role within the new world order.
The U.S. must show the leadership necessary to establish and protect a new order that holds the promise of convincing potential competitors that they need not aspire to a greater role or pursue a more aggressive posture to protect their legitimate interests. In non-defense areas, we must account sufficiently for the interests of the advanced industrial nations to discourage them from challenging our leadership or seeking to overturn the established political and economic order. We must maintain the mechanism for deterring potential competitors from even aspiring to a larger regional or global role.
This was substantially re-written in the April 16 release.
One of the primary tasks we face today in shaping the future is carrying long standing alliances into the new era, and turning old enmities into new cooperative relationships. If we and other leading democracies continue to build a democratic security community, a much safer world is likely to emerge. If we act separately, many other problems could result.


The doctrine downplays the value of international coalitions.
Like the coalition that opposed Iraqi aggression, we should expect future coalitions to be ad hoc assemblies, often not lasting beyond the crisis being confronted, and in many cases carrying only general agreement over the objectives to be accomplished. Nevertheless, the sense that the world order is ultimately backed by the U.S. will be an important stabilizing factor.
This was re-written with a change in emphasis in the April 16 release.
Certain situations like the crisis leading to the Gulf War are likely to engender ad hoc coalitions. We should plan to maximize the value of such coalitions. This may include specialized roles for our forces as well as developing cooperative practices with others.

Pre-emptive intervention

The doctrine stated the U.S’s right to intervene when and where it believed necessary.
While the U.S. cannot become the world's policeman, by assuming responsibility for righting every wrong, we will retain the preeminent responsibility for addressing selectively those wrongs which threaten not only our interests, but those of our allies or friends, or which could seriously unsettle international relations.
This was softened slightly in the April 16 release.
While the United States cannot become the world's policeman and assume responsibility for solving every international security problem, neither can we allow our critical interests to depend solely on international mechanisms that can be blocked by countries whose interests may be very different than our own. Where our allies interests are directly affected, we must expect them to take an appropriate share of the responsibility, and in some cases play the leading role; but we maintain the capabilities for addressing selectively those security problems that threaten our own interests.

Russian threat

The doctrine highlighted the possible threat posed by a resurgent Russia.
We continue to recognize that collectively the conventional forces of the states formerly comprising the Soviet Union retain the most military potential in all of Eurasia; and we do not dismiss the risks to stability in Europe from a nationalist backlash in Russia or efforts to reincorporate into Russia the newly independent republics of Ukraine, Belarus, and possibly others... We must, however, be mindful that democratic change in Russia is not irreversible, and that despite its current travails, Russia will remain the strongest military power in Eurasia and the only power in the world with the capability of destroying the United States.
This was removed from the April 16 release in favour of a more diplomatic approach.
The U.S. has a significant stake in promoting democratic consolidation and peaceful relations between Russia, Ukraine and the other republics of the former Soviet Union.

Middle East and Southwest Asia

The doctrine clarified the overall objectives in the Middle East and Southwest Asia.
In the Middle East and Southwest Asia, our overall objective is to remain the predominant outside power in the region and preserve U.S. and Western access to the region's oil. We also seek to deter further aggression in the region, foster regional stability, protect U.S. nationals and property, and safeguard our access to international air and seaways. As demonstrated by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, it remains fundamentally important to prevent a hegemon or alignment of powers from dominating the region. This pertains especially to the Arabian peninsula. Therefore, we must continue to play a role through enhanced deterrence and improved cooperative security.
The April 16 release was more circumspect and it reaffirmed U.S. commitments to Israel as well as its Arab allies.
In the Middle East and Persian Gulf, we seek to foster regional stability, deter aggression against our friends and interests in the region, protect U.S. nationals and property, and safeguard our access to international air and seaways and to the region's oil. The United States is committed to the security of Israel and to maintaining the qualitative edge that is critical to Israel's security. Israel's confidence in its security and U.S.-Israel strategic cooperation contribute to the stability of the entire region, as demonstrated once again during the Persian Gulf War. At the same time, our assistance to our Arab friends to defend themselves against aggression also strengthens security throughout the region, including for Israel.

See also


  • Tyler 1992.
    1. Mann 2004, p. 210


    Bush, George W. (1 June 2002). "Remarks to the U.S. Military Academy". Retrieved 12 May 2013.
    Gaddis, John Lewis (2002). "Grand Strategy of Transformation". Foreign Policy (133): 50–57. JSTOR 3183557.
    Gaddis's essay is reprinted in Paul Bolt, Damon V. Coletta and Collins G. Shackleford Jr., eds., (2005), American Defense Policy (8th ed.), Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Caputo Leiva, Orlando (2007). "The World Economy and the United States at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century". Latin American Perspectives. 34 (1): 9–15. JSTOR 27647989. doi:10.1177/0094582x06296357.
    Tyler, Patrick E. (8 March 1992). "U.S. Strategy Plan Calls For Insuring No Rivals Develop". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2013.

    External links

    Navigation menu

  • Gaddis 2002, p. 52: "Preemption […] requires hegemony. Although Bush speaks, in his letter of transmittal, of creating 'a balance of power that favors human freedom' while forsaking 'unilateral advantage,' the body of the NSS makes it clear that 'our forces will be strong enough to dissuade potential adversaries from pursuing a military build-up in hopes of surpassing, or equaling, the power of the United States.' The West Point speech put it more bluntly: 'America has, and intends to keep, military strengths beyond challenge.' The president has at last approved, therefore, Paul Wolfowitz's controversial recommendation to this effect, made in a 1992 'Defense Planning Guidance' draft subsequently leaked to the press and then disavowed by the first Bush administration. It's no accident that Wolfowitz, as deputy secretary of defense, has been at the center of the new Bush administration's strategic planning."
  • Caputo Leiva 2007, p. 10.
  • Mann, James (2004). Rise of the Vulcans : the history of Bush's war cabinet (1. publ. ed.). New York, NY [u.a.]: Viking. p. 209. ISBN 0-670-03299-9.
  • Mann 2004, p. 210.
  • Vimana - Ancient Flying Machines


    George Adamski - If You hadn't heard of Him

    Image result for george adamski images

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    George Adamski
    George Adamski 1.jpg
    Born 17 April 1891
    Bromberg, German Empire
    (present-day Bydgoszcz, Poland)
    Died 23 April 1965 (aged 74)
    Maryland, United States
    Resting place Arlington National Cemetery
    Occupation Self-described "wandering teacher",[1] ufologist
    Organization Royal Order of Tibet
    George Adamski Foundation
    Known for Contactee
    George Adamski (17 April 1891 – 23 April 1965) was a Polish American citizen who became widely known in ufology circles, and to some degree in popular culture, after he claimed to have photographed spaceships from other planets, met with friendly Nordic alien Space Brothers, and to have taken flights with them to the Moon and other planets.[2]
    He was the first, and most famous, of the so-called contactees of the 1950s. Adamski called himself a "philosopher, teacher, student and saucer researcher", although most investigators concluded his claims were an elaborate hoax, and that Adamski himself was a con artist.[3]
    Adamski authored three books describing his meetings with Nordic aliens and his travels with them aboard their spaceships: Flying Saucers Have Landed (co-written with Desmond Leslie) in 1953, Inside the Space Ships in 1955, and Flying Saucers Farewell in 1961. The first two books were both bestsellers; by 1960 they had sold a combined 200,000 copies.[4]


    Early years

    Adamski was born in Bromberg (present-day Bydgoszcz, Poland) in the German Empire. His family were ethnic Poles.[5]
    At the age of two, he and his family emigrated to the United States and settled in New York City.[5] From 1913-16, beginning at the age of 22,[6] he was a soldier in the 13th U.S. Cavalry Regiment (K Troop) fighting at the Mexican border during the Pancho Villa Expedition.[5]
    In 1917 he married Mary Shimbersky. She died in 1954; they had no children.[7] Following his marriage Adamski moved west, doing maintenance work in Yellowstone National Park and working in an Oregon flour mill and a California concrete factory.[5][7] By 1930 "Adamski was a minor figure on the California occult scene", teaching his personal mixture of Christianity and Eastern religions, which he called "Universal Progressive Christianity" and "Universal Law".[7]
    In the early 1930s, while living in Laguna Beach, Adamski founded the "Royal Order of Tibet", which held its meetings in the "Temple of Scientific Philosophy".[6] Adamski served as a "philosopher" and teacher at the temple.[8] The "Royal Order of Tibet" was given a government license to make wine for "religious purposes" during Prohibition; Adamski was quoted as saying "I made enough wine for all of Southern California ... I was making a fortune!" However, the end of Prohibition also marked the decline of his profitable wine-making business, and Adamski later told two friends that's when he "had to get into this [flying] saucer crap."[8]
    In 1940 Adamski, his wife, and some close friends moved to a ranch near California's Palomar Mountain, where they dedicated their time to studying religion, philosophy, and farming.[6] In 1944, with funding from Alice K. Wells, a student of Adamski, they purchased 20 acres (8.1 ha) of land on Palomar Mountain, where they built a new home, a campground called Palomar Gardens, and a small restaurant called Palomar Gardens Cafe.[3][5][6]
    At the campground and restaurant, Adamski "often gave lectures on Eastern philosophy and religion, sometimes late into the night" to students, admirers, and tourists.[9] He also built a wooden observatory at the campground to house his six-inch telescope, and visitors and tourists to Palomar Mountain often received the inaccurate impression that Adamski was an astronomer connected to the famed Palomar Observatory at the top of the mountain.[10] Adamski would correct this false impression "only when pressed to do so."[11] Although he was frequently called "Professor" Adamski by his admirers and followers, he held no graduate or undergraduate degree from any accredited college or university, and in fact had only a grade school education.[12]


    On 9 October 1946, during a meteor shower, Adamski and some friends claimed that while they were at the Palomar Gardens campground, they witnessed a large cigar-shaped "mother ship."[5] In early 1947, Adamski took a photograph of what he claimed was the 1946 cigar-shaped "mother ship" crossing in front of the moon over Palomar Gardens.[5] In the summer of 1947, following the first widely publicized UFO sightings in the USA, Adamski claimed he had seen 184 UFOs pass over Palomar Gardens one evening.[13]
    In 1949 Adamski began giving his first UFO lectures to civic groups and other organizations in Southern California; he requested, and received, fees for the lectures.[13] In these lectures he made "fantastic" claims, such as "that government and science had established the existence of UFOs two years earlier, via radar tracking of 700-foot-long spacecraft on the other side of the Moon."[13] In his lectures Adamski further claimed that "science now knows that all planets [in Earth's solar system] are inhabited" and "photos of Mars taken from the Mount Palomar observatory have proven the canals on Mars are man-made, built by an intelligence far greater than any man's on earth."[13]
    However, as one UFO historian has noted, "even in the early 1950s [Adamski's] assertions about surface conditions on, and the habitability of, Venus, Mars, and the other planets of the solar system flew in the face of massive scientific evidence..."mainstream" ufologists were almost uniformly hostile to Adamski, holding not only that his and similar contact stories were fraudulent, but that the contactees were making serious UFO investigators look ridiculous."[14]
    On 29 May 1950, Adamski took a photograph of what he alleged to be six unidentified objects in the sky, which appeared to be flying in formation. This same UFO photograph was depicted in an August 1978 commemorative stamp issued by the island nation of Grenada in order to mark the "Year of UFOs."[5][15]

    Orthon and the Contactees

    On 20 November 1952, Adamski and several friends were in the Colorado Desert near the town of Desert Center, California, when they purportedly saw a large submarine-shaped object hovering in the sky. Believing that the ship was looking for him, Adamski is said to have left his friends and to have headed away from the main road. Shortly afterwards, according to Adamski's accounts, a scout ship made of a type of translucent metal landed close to him, and its pilot, a Venusian called Orthon,[16] disembarked and sought him out. Adamski claimed that the people with him also saw the Venusian ship, and several of them later stated they could see Adamski meeting someone in the desert, although from a considerable distance.[17]
    Adamski's photograph, which is said to be of an UFO, taken on 13 December 1952. However, German scientist Walther Johannes Riedel said this photo was faked using a surgical lamp and that the landing struts were light bulbs
    Adamski described Orthon as being a medium-height humanoid with long blond hair and tanned skin wearing reddish-brown shoes, though, as Adamski added, "his trousers were not like mine." Adamski said Orthon communicated with him via telepathy and through hand signals.[1][5][17][18]
    During the conversation, Orthon purportedly warned of the dangers of nuclear war, and Adamski later wrote that "the presence of this inhabitant of Venus was like the warm embrace of great love and understanding wisdom."[19] Adamski claimed Orthon had refused to allow himself to be photographed, and instead, had asked Adamski to provide him with a blank photographic plate, which Adamski claimed he had given Orthon.[5] George Hunt Williamson (a contactee and Adamski associate) also claimed that after Orthon left, he was able to take plaster casts of Orthon's shoe imprints. The imprints contained mysterious symbols, which Adamski said was a message from Orthon.[20]
    Orthon is said to have returned the photographic plate to Adamski on 13 December 1952; when developed it was found to contain new strange symbols.[5][21] It was during this meeting that Adamski is said to have taken a now famous photograph of Orthon's Venusian scout ship using his 6-inch (150 mm) telescope.[21]
    Aristocratic Irish eccentric Desmond Leslie struck up a correspondence with Adamski. In the mid-1950s Leslie had created a low-budget UFO film entitled Them And The Thing at his home, Castle Leslie. The flying saucer in the film had been created by shining mirrors on to a Spanish Renaissance shield suspended from a fishing line. The film was rediscovered in 2010.[22]
    In need of money and keen to create a bestseller, Leslie had written a manuscript about the visitation of Earth by aliens. Its genesis had been Leslie chancing upon a copy of the 1896 book The Story of Atlantis and the Lost Lemuria by William Scott-Elliot in a friend's library.[23] Adamski sent Leslie a written account of his supposed contact with Orthon, and photos. Leslie combined the two works into the 1953 co-authored book Flying Saucers Have Landed. [24][25] Immensely popular, it brought Adamski fame, as well as money for both men.
    The following year Leslie visited Adamski in California, and claimed to witness several UFOs with him. Leslie described one of them in a letter he sent to his wife while he was in San Diego:[26]
    ... a beautiful golden ship in the sunset, but brighter than the sunset ... It slowly faded out, the way they do.
    Flying Saucers Have Landed claimed Nordic aliens from Venus and other planets in Earth's solar system routinely visited the Earth. According to the book, Orthon and other aliens were worried that nuclear bomb tests in the Earth's atmosphere would kill all life on Earth, spread radiation into space, and contaminate other planets.[27] Adamski claimed that Nordic aliens worshiped a "Creator of All", but that "we on Earth know very little about this Creator...our understanding is shallow."[27]
    In his 1955 book Inside the Space Ships, Adamski claimed that Orthon arranged for him to be taken on a trip to see the Solar System, including the planet Venus, the location where Orthon said the late Mrs. Adamski had been reincarnated.[5][17] He claimed that in another voyage he met the 1,000-year-old "elder philosopher of the space people", who was called "the Master." Adamski said he and the Master discussed philosophy, religion, and the "Earth's place in the universe."[28] Adamski said he learned that he had been selected by Nordic aliens to bring their message of peace to Earth people, and that other humans throughout history had also served as their messengers, including Jesus Christ. Adamski further claimed that aliens were peacefully living on Earth, and that he had met with them in bars and restaurants in Southern California.[28]
    Adamski's stories led other people to come forward with their own claims of contact and interplanetary travels with friendly "Space Brothers", including such figures as Howard Menger, Daniel Fry, George Van Tassel, and Truman Bethurum. The message of Adamski and his fellow contactees was one in which the other planets of Earth's solar system were all "inhabited by physically handsome, spiritually evolved beings who have moved beyond the problems of Earth people...the reader of Inside the Space Ships enters a perfect world, the kind we can create here on Earth if we behave ourselves."[19] Through books, lectures, and conventions - particularly the annual Giant Rock UFO convention in California - the contactee movement would grow throughout the 1950s.[29] However, Adamski would remain the most prominent, and most influential, of the contactees.[4]
    Adamski's claims of traveling aboard a UFO inspired an elaborate hoax perpetrated by British astronomer Patrick Moore and his friend Peter Davies using the false identity Cedric Allingham.[30]

    Straith Letter Hoax

    In 1957 Adamski received a letter signed "R.E. Straith," alleged representative of the "Cultural Exchange Committee" of the U.S. State Department. The letter said the U.S. Government knew that Adamski had spoken to extraterrestrials in a California desert in 1952, and that a group of highly placed government officials planned on public corroboration of Adamski's story. Adamski was proud of this endorsement and exhibited it to support his claims.[31]
    However, in 2002 ufologist James W. Moseley revealed that the letter was a hoax. Moseley said he and his friend Gray Barker had obtained some official State Department letterheads, created the R.E. Straith persona, and then written the letter to Adamski as a prank. According to Moseley, the FBI investigated the case and discovered that the letter was a hoax, but charges were not filed against Moseley or Barker.[32]
    Moseley also wrote that the FBI informed Adamski that the Straith letter was a hoax and asked him to stop using it as evidence in support of his claims, but that Adamski refused and continued to display the letter in his lectures and talks.[33] This was not the first time Adamski had claimed government support for his UFO stories. In 1953 he told a meeting of the Corona, California Lions Club that his "material has all been cleared with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Air Force Intelligence."[34]
    When the FBI learned of Adamski's claims, three agents were sent to talk to Adamski. He denied having stated that the FBI or USAF intelligence supported his claims (even though his remarks were reported in a local newspaper, the Riverside Enterprise), and he agreed to sign a letter stating that "he understood the implications of making false claims" and that the FBI "did not endorse [the claims] of individuals." The three FBI agents also signed the letter, and a copy was given to Adamski.[34]
    However, a few months later Adamski told an interviewer that he had been "cleared" by the FBI, and displayed the letter as proof. When the Los Angeles Better Business Bureau complained, more FBI agents were sent to retrieve Adamski's copy of the letter, "read the riot act to him, and warn him that legal action would be taken if he continued" to claim FBI or government support for his stories.[35] Adamski later said the FBI had "warned [him] to keep quiet."[36]

    Meeting with Queen Juliana of the Netherlands

    In May 1959, the head of the Dutch Unidentified Flying Objects Society told Adamski she had been contacted by officials at the palace of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands who advised "that the Queen would like to receive you."[3]
    Adamski informed a London newspaper about the invitation, which prompted the court and cabinet to request that the queen cancel her private audience with Adamski, but the queen went ahead with the audience, saying, "A hostess cannot slam the door in the face of her guests."[3] After the audience, Dutch Aeronautical Association president Cornelis Kolff said "The Queen showed an extraordinary interest in the whole subject." The Royal Netherlands Air Force Chief of Staff, Lieutenant General Heye Schaperm said "The man's a pathological case."[3] Wire services such as United Press International and Reuters circulated reports of the meeting to newspapers around the world.[37]

    Later life and death

    Adamski's "Golden Medal of Honor," which he claimed to have received during a secret audience with Pope John XXIII
    In 1962, Adamski announced that he would be attending an interplanetary conference held on the planet Saturn.[5] In 1963, Adamski claimed that he had had a secret audience with Pope John XXIII and that he had received a "Golden Medal of Honor" from His Holiness.[38] Adamski, at the request of the extraterrestrials he was allegedly in contact with, met with the Pope in order to request a "final agreement" from him because of his decision not to communicate directly with any extraterrestrials, and also to offer him a liquid substance in order to save him from the gastric enteritis that he suffered from, which would later become acute peritonitis.[39]


    On 23 April 1965, aged 74, Adamski died of a heart attack after giving a UFO lecture in Maryland.[5] He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.[40]

    Investigations and criticism

    Over the decades numerous critics and skeptics have investigated Adamski's claims. The aliens Adamski claimed to have met in the 1950s were described by him as "human beings from another world", usually light-skinned, light-haired humanoids that would later be called Nordic aliens.[27] Adamski claimed in his books that these "alien humans" came from Venus, Mars, and other planets in Earth's solar system. However, none of the planets he mentioned are capable of supporting human life, due to their environmental conditions.
    For example, the first alien Adamski claimed to have met was from Venus, yet the atmospheric pressure on the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth, it has clouds which rain a toxic substance thought to be sulfuric acid, the atmosphere consists almost entirely of carbon dioxide, with very little oxygen, and the average surface temperature of Venus is 464 °C. In one of his books, Adamski described a trip he took to the far side of the Moon in a UFO, where he claimed to see cities, trees, and snow-capped mountains; he also claimed that the photographs of the Moon's far side that were taken by the Soviet lunar probe Luna 3 in 1959 were altered to depict a barren, lifeless surface instead of what he saw.[41]
    However, scientific evidence as well as later lunar trips by American astronauts, clearly showed that the far side of the Moon is barren of life and has no atmosphere. Some of Adamski's supporters have put forward the theory that the space people whom Adamski claimed contacted him may have had bases on Venus, Mars, Saturn, etc., and Adamski misunderstood and mistook them for actually living on those planets.[42] However, in his writings Adamski described traveling personally to Venus, Mars, and other planets in Earth's solar system, and he clearly stated that they were all capable of supporting humanoid life.[19] As UFO historian Jerome Clark noted, "some Adamski partisans insisted that Venus, Mars, Saturn, and the rest were merely code words for planets in other solar systems; there is, however, nothing in Adamski's public writings to support this interpretation and considerable testimony to the contrary."[14]
    Adamski's photographs of the UFOs he claimed to observe and travel in have also come under scrutiny. His often-published photo of a flying saucer from 1952 has been variously identified as a streetlight or the top of a chicken brooder.[43] Adamski claimed that movie director Cecil B. DeMille's top trick photographer, J. Peverell Marley, had examined his UFO photos and found a "spaceman" in them, and Marley himself declared that if Adamski's pictures were fakes, they were the best he had ever seen. In the United Kingdom, 14 experts from the J. Arthur Rank company concluded that the object photographed was either real or a full-scale model.[44]
    However, in his 1955 investigation into Adamski's claims, James W. Moseley interviewed Marley, who denied that he had enlarged the photos for analysis, found a "spaceman" in them, or knew of anyone who had. Moseley also interviewed German rocket scientist Walther Johannes Riedel, who told him that he had analyzed Adamski's UFO photos and found them to be fakes.[45] Riedel told Moseley that the UFO's "landing struts" were actually 100-watt General Electric light bulbs, and that he had seen the "GE" logo printed on them.[45] In 2012, UFO researcher Joel Carpenter identified the reflector-shade of a widely available 1930s pressurised-gas lantern as an identical visual match to the main portion of Adamski's saucer.[46]
    In his 1955 investigation, Moseley found other flaws in Adamski's story. He interviewed several of the people that Adamski claimed had been with him in his initial 20 November 1952 meeting with Orthon, and found that these witnesses contradicted Adamski's claims.[47] One, Al Bailey, denied to Moseley that he had seen a UFO in the desert or the alien Adamski described. Jerrold Baker, who had worked at Palomar Gardens with Adamski, told Moseley that he had overheard "a tape-recorded account of what was to transpire on the desert, who was to go, etc." several days before Adamski's claimed 20 November meeting with Orthon, and Baker stated that Adamski's meeting with Orthon was a "planned operation."[36] Baker added that Adamski had tried to convince him not to expose their hoax by telling him that he could make money by charging fees to give UFO lectures, as Adamski was doing: "Now you know the [UFO] picture connected to your name is in the book (Flying Saucers Have Landed) too. And with people knowing that you are connected with flying could do yourself a lot of good. You could give lectures in the evenings. There is a demand for this! You could support yourself by the picture in the book with your name."[12]
    Moseley discovered that George Hunt Williamson, another prominent contactee and friend of Adamski, did not witness any UFO nor Adamski's encounter with Orthon, despite his public statements claiming otherwise. When Irma Baker, Jerrold Baker's wife, accused him of lying about the incident, Williamson told her cryptically that "sometimes to gain admittance, one has to go around the back door."[12] In his report on Adamski, Moseley wrote "I do believe most definitely that Adamski's narrative contains enough flaws to place in very serious doubt both his veracity and his sincerity. The reader will be moved to make for himself a careful re-evaluation of the worth of Adamski's book."[48]
    In the early-to-mid 1950s USAF Captain Edward J. Ruppelt was the head of Project Blue Book, the Air Force group assigned to investigate UFO reports. In 1953 Captain Ruppelt decided to investigate Adamski's UFO claims. He traveled to California's Palomar Mountain and, dressed in civilian attire to avoid attracting attention, attended one of Adamski's lectures before a large crowd at his Palomar Gardens Cafe.[4]
    Ruppelt concluded that Adamski was a talented con artist whose UFO stories were designed to make money from his gullible followers and listeners, and he compared Adamski to the famed hoaxer, carnival, and circus showman PT Barnum. In describing Adamski's speaking style, Ruppelt wrote "to look at the man and listen to his story you had an immediate urge to believe him...he was dressed in well-worn, but neat, overalls. He had slightly graying hair and the most honest pair of eyes I've ever seen. He spoke softly and naively, almost pathetically, giving the impression that 'most people think I'm crazy, but honestly, I'm really not.'"[4] According to Ruppelt, Adamski had a persuasive effect on his audience, "you could actually have heard the proverbial pin drop" in the restaurant as Adamski told of his initial 1952 meeting with Orthon. When Adamski finished his story, Ruppelt noted that many of his listeners purchased copies of Adamski's UFO photos that were on sale in the restaurant. At another lecture led by Adamski and other well-known contactees, Ruppelt wrote that "people shelled out hard cash to hear Adamski's story."[4]
    Ruppelt believed "the common undertone to many of these [contactee] Utopia. On these other worlds there is no illness, they've learned how to cure all diseases. There are no wars, they've learned how to live peaceably. There is no poverty, everyone has everything he wants. There is no old age, they have learned the secret of eternal life...Too many times this subtle pitch can be boiled down to, "Step right up folks and put a donation in the pot. I'm just on the verge of learning the spaceman's secrets and with a little money to carry out my work I'll give you the secret."[4]
    According to Ruppelt, by 1960 Adamski's UFO lectures, and in particular his first two books, had made him an affluent man: "[His] hamburger stand is boarded up and he now lives in a big ranch house. He vacations in Mexico and has his own clerical staff. His two books Flying Saucers Have Landed and Inside the Space Ships have sold...200,000 copies and have been translated into every language except Russian."[4] Ruppelt also humorously noted that by 1960 two "beautiful spacewomen" who claimed to be Nordic aliens were dating Adamski, a blonde from Saturn called "Kalna" and another woman named "Ilmuth".[4]
    Adamski's 1955 book Inside the Space Ships, which describes his claimed travels through Earth's solar system in a UFO, is considered by some critics[49] to be a "remake" of his 1949 science fiction book, ghostwritten for Adamski by Lucy McGinnis, and entitled Pioneers of Space. It described a fictional voyage through the solar system that, critics noted, sounded very similar to Adamski's claimed real-life space travels described in Inside the Space Ships.[50]

    In popular culture

    • Science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke referred to ufologists as suffering from Adamski's disease in his novel 3001: The Final Odyssey.
    • Adamski appears briefly in issue 4 of The Bulletproof Coffin - Disinterred by David Hine and Shaky Kane.
    • British House musician Adamski, real name Adam Tinley, adopted the UFO enthusiast's surname as his stagename.
    • In the role playing game Hunter: The Vigil, Task Force VALKYRIE includes a subgroup called Operation ADAMSKI, dedicated to producing and distributing misinformation about aliens and other "extra-normal entities" in order to hide the existence of such beings.
    • In Kirby's Adventure, the player character is able to assume a form resembling an Adamski UFO.
    • In Mega Man 9, there is an UFO-based enemy named Adamski.
    • In the game Disgaea in the optional "Prinny Commentary Mode" the commentator makes reference to Adamski UFOs.
    • In the Transformers toy line, the Transformer Cosmos (Transformers) transforms into an Adamski-style saucer. The Japanese toy even uses "Adams" as its name.[citation needed]


    • Royal Order of Tibet (1936). Questions and Answers. Wisdom of the Masters of the Far East. 1. "Compiled by Professor G. Adamski". Laguna Beach, CA: G. Adamski. LCCN 36025826. OCLC 38260588.
    • Adamski, George (1949). Pioneers of Space: A Trip to the Moon, Mars and Venus (1st ed.). Los Angeles: Leonard-Freefield. LCCN ltf91070007. OCLC 317646658.
    • Leslie, Desmond; Adamski, George (1953). Flying Saucers Have Landed. New York: British Book Centre. ISBN 0-854351-80-9. LCCN 53012621. OCLC 383007.
    • Adamski, George (1955). Inside the Space Ships. New York: Abelard-Schuman. LCCN 55010556. OCLC 543169.
    • —— (1961). Flying Saucers Farewell. New York: Abelard-Schuman. LCCN 61012205. OCLC 964949.
    • —— (1967) [Originally published 1955 as Inside the Space Ships; New York: Abelard-Schuman]. Inside the Flying Saucers. New York: Paperback Library. OCLC 1747128.
    • —— (1967) [Originally published 1961 as Flying Saucers Farewell; New York: Abelard-Schuman]. Behind the Flying Saucer Mystery. Paperback Library 53-439. New York: Paperback Library. OCLC 4020003.
    • —— (1972) [Originally published 1961; G. Adamski]. Cosmic Philosophy. Freeman, SD: Pine Hill Press. LCCN 62000520. OCLC 13371492.

    Other publications

    • Adamski, George (1937). Petals of Life: Poems. Laguna Beach, CA: Royal Order of Tibet. OCLC 47304946.
    • —— (1955). Many Mansions ("From a press conference with the ministers of Detroit in September 1955 ..."). Willowdale, Ontario: SS & S Publications. OCLC 45443779.
    • —— (1958). Telepathy: The Cosmic or Universal Language. OCLC 45443839.
    • —— (28 March 1960). Man tells of trip to moon (Motion picture (newsreel)). Hearst Corporation. OCLC 79040262.
    • —— (1964). Science of Life Study Course. Self-published.

    See also


  • Zinsstag & Good 1983, pp. 5–6
  • References

    Further reading

    External links

    Navigation menu

  • (Peebles, pp. 93-96)
  • "The Queen & the Saucers". Time. 1 June 1959. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
  • Profile,; accessed 8 June 2017.
  • Scott-Blair, Michael (13 August 2003). "Palomar campground expanding its universe". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 December 2005. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
  • Solomon 1998, pp. 54–56
  • (Clark, p. 26)
  • (Peebles, p. 113)
  • (Peebles, p. 114)
  • (Moseley, pp. 64-65)
  • (Moseley, p. 65)
  • (Peebles, p. 119)
  • (Clark, p. 27)
  • (Clark, p. 31)
  • Smith, T.J. (June 2003). "Grenadas UFO Stamps". Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  • (Peebles, pp. 115-116)
  • Malcolm, Noel (6 March 2005). "Common sense abducted". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
  • Laycock, et al. 1989, p. 3
  • (Clark, p. 28)
  • (Peebles, p. 116)
  • "George Adamski and the Flying Saucers from Venus". Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
  • "Sir Patrick Moore's Irish UFO film identified - BBC News". Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  • Hesemann, Michael, Filmed interview with Leslie as The Pioneers of Space
  • O'Bryne, Robert (2010). Desmond Leslie: The Biography of an Irish Gentleman. Dublin: Lilliput Press. p. 85.
  • Clarke, Dave (2007). The Flyingsaucerers: A Social History of UFOlogy. Alternative Albion. p. 40. ISBN 1905646003.
  • "Desmond Leslie". The Daily Telegraph (Obituary). London, UK: Telegraph Media Group. 20 March 2001. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  • (Peebles, p. 115)
  • (Peebles, p. 122)
  • (Peebles, p. 125)
  • (Clark, pp. 70-71)
  • (Peebles, pp. 133-134)
  • Moseley & Pflock, pp. 124–27, 180
  • Moseley & Pflock, p. 126
  • (Peebles, p. 117)
  • (Peebles, pp. 117-118)
  • (Peebles, p. 118)
  • (Peebles, p. 60)
  • "About George Adamski". George Adamski Foundation. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
  • Barbato, Cristoforo (2006). "The Omega Secret". UFO Digest. Port Colborne, Ontario: Dirk Vander Ploeg. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
  • "George Adamski (1891 - 1965) - Find A Grave Memorial". 18 May 2004. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  • Stuttaford, Andrew (17 January 2003). "Spirits in the Sky". National Review Online. New York: National Review. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  • Louize, Lucus (2015). The UFO Teachings of Adamski, Menger, Fry, Nelson, and Others: A Supplemental Study Guide To Their Books. ISBN 978-0-692-56940-5.
  • Wilhelmsen 2008, p. 259
  • Zinsstag & Good 1983, p. 176.
  • Moseley & Pflock, p. 69
  • Carpenter, Joel. "Preliminary Notes on the Adamski Scout Ship Photos" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  • (Peebles, pp. 118-119)
  • (Peebles, p. 120)
  • Hallet, Marc (1 May 2005). "Why I can say that Adamski was a Liar". SkepticReport. Frederikssund, Denmark: Claus Flodin Larsen. Retrieved 25 October 2013.